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      新東方網>深圳新東方學校>出國留學>GMAT>正文

      如何表達好雅思寫作中的因果關系?

      2017-01-04 10:42

      來源:來自互聯網

      編輯:新東方小編

        為了幫助考生們更好地備考雅思寫作考試,太傻網考試頻道小編給大家帶來雅思寫作中因果關系如何表達,希望同學們看過之后對自己的備考有所幫助!

        雅思大作文中有一類題目是因果關系類,具體包括三小類:cause and effect、cause and solution、problem and solution。這三小類問題也可以穿起來,即針對某個topic的cause—effect(即problem)– solution。

        無論哪種題目,寫明因果關系很重要。關于因果關系的表達同學們都很熟悉,無非是BS(because / so),而且大家也一定很清楚的知道BS在英語中,用了前者就不能用后者的道理。例如

        Becausefurther education has become more accessible for a wider range of people, an increasing number of people have degrees

        Further education has become more accessible for a wider range of people, so an increasing number of people have degrees。

        但是除了BS之外,還有很多其它表示因果關系的表達,具體如下:

        Because系列(表原因)

        1、because of : because后接的是一個句子(主謂賓);because of 后一般直接跟名詞。例如:

        Because ofthe increasing number of machine—and as we noted before, machines magnify human effort—then anyone using a machine can

        get a higher wage than anyone not using a machine。

        2、as / since (除了“因為“外,還有”自從”的意思,使用時要注意避免歧義)

        Hours spent on commuting, traffic jams, and fights for parking should diminish, sinceworkers make fewer journeys or work staggered hours

        Unfortunately, as the number of people living in the city increases, so do the different problems associated with population growth。 (注意此句中的so不表示“所以”,而是“…也…”的意思)

        3、thanks to (positive situations 通常適用于結果好的時候)

        Thanks to new technology, it‘s easier than ever to work remotely。

        due to (negative situations通常使用與結果不好的時候)

        owing to / attributable to /on account of

        Due to /… / On account of extreme weather conditions, damage to property occurs。

        4、當原因需要的表達較多時,我們還可以把以上表達改寫為原因狀語從句,使用thanks to the fact that / due to the fact that /owing to the fact that 或者on the grounds that ,,,

        Will we live longer merely due to the fact that / on the grounds that technology, if implemented properly, will take stress away from our lives

        5、caused by / result from 也表原因

        Many car accidents were resulted from / caused by a lack of guardrails

        So系列(表結果)

        1、thus/ therefore / thereby / hence

        thus: 表示‘in this/that way’

        As a country develops, its cities become the engines of development, thus jobs are available in these areas。

        therefore: 表示 ‘for this reason’ /‘because of this or that’

        Therefore, the influence of the peer group is important both for one’s own competence and for the relative evaluation of the process itself, given that one sees oneself in relation to others。

        thereby: by that means, as a result of that

        In some countries, reduced budgets have led to the elimination of busing systems, thereby increasing the use of cars and the congestion they create。

        hence: 表示 ‘from this/that’

        Drinking lots of water is healthy and reducing plastic waste is great for the environment。 Hence, trendy reusable water bottles that you can refill yourself are health-promoting, eco-friendly, and green。

        2、As a result / As a consequence

        As a result, those people who were indoors had much lighter skin, which means that whiter skin is now associated with having a higher status than dark skin。

        As a consequence, environmental health must address the societal and environmental factors that increase the likelihood of exposure and disease。

        3、consequently /accordingly

        Consequently 更偏重因果邏輯;accordingly 更偏重后續解決

        Water pollution affects drinking water, rivers, lakes and oceans all over the world。 This consequently harms human health and the natural environment。

        Some of the laws were contradictory。 Accordingly, measures were taken to clarify them。

        Cause系列(表結果)

        1、cause (v。) 引起

        The amount of garbage produced by the people also increases whichcauses sanitary landfills to fill up faster。

        2、lead to/ result in 導致

        注意這里是result in, 后跟結果,前面提到的result from后面跟的是原因。

        The society’s attitude to food often leads to over-consumption。

        3、bring about: to cause to take place 引起,帶來(注意使用時更傾向于“帶來“這個意思)

        The internet technologies that have brought about so much social change were scarcely imaginable just decades before they appeared。

        4、spark off 引發、引爆 ,具體指引發比較嚴重的后果、沖突等(=trigger / activate),或指”點燃“(=inspire)

        Spark offa series of problems / a chain of events related to…

        They canspark off each other‘s talents

        affect系列(影響到)

        1、Affect/influence

        More likely than not, getting a vehicle from point “A” to point “B” involves combustion of a fossil fuel, a process that emits gasses and affectsthe environment and the ozone layer。

        People‘s behavior is influenced by circumstances and events, friends and family, education, job prospects, income, housing and environment。

        2、impact on 對…產生影響(impact 一般做名詞使用,也可以作為動詞)

        Over the last few decades, there has been a tremendous growth in information technology, which can impact onour everyday life。

        3、give rise to 使發生

        The decrease inthe number of bicycles and cars might give rise to another new set of problems。

        名詞系列(因果)

        1、cause (of sth。)/ reason 原因

        Obesity can be divided into three main causes – diet, lifestyle and education。

        Thousands of people migrate to the cities not only for jobs but also for educational and personal reasons。

        2、result (for sth。)/ effect 結果

        This is a difficult problem with many seriouseffects on the individual and country。

        Another result is lack of self-esteem。

        3、causality 因果關系(cause and effect) causation 原因

        The correlation between population and housing price does not indicated causality, only the association。 這里的causality也可以換成:causal effect (因果效應)

        Such a causality-driven, prevention-focused approach to homicide and other serious crime would revolutionize our conception of criminal justice, moving from the imposition of “just deserts” to the enlightened pursuit of a less violent society。

        4、impact/influence 影響

        This area is often overlooked but has a tremendous impact on your life

        Friends have a biginfluence on the way that we use social media—from unwritten rules to buying decisions and so much more。

        形容詞系列(因果)

        表示因果的形容詞不是很常用,使用時多和factor, element 結合

        1、causal 原因的,因果的

        Low income and elderly are among the potential causalfactors of prevalence of obesity among adults

        2、consequential 結果的,隨之發生的

        Measures other than ratings will prove more consequential

        3、influential 影響的,有影響力的(大多數情況下使用第二個意思)

        Family is the most influential factor on happiness。

        如果能夠準確無誤的使用以上因果關系表達,就完成了二段修


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